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COTABATO CITY is situated in the northwest portion of Maguindanao. It lies 7’138’44.02 North Latitude and 124’14’32.06 East Longitude It is approximately 689.9 nautical miles southeast of Manila and is more or less 220 kilometers away from Davao City. The city is bounded on the North by the municipality of Sultan Kudarat with Rio Grande de Mindanao as boundary; on the East by the municipality of Kabuntalan; on the South by the municipality of Dinaig, now Datu Odin Sinsuat (DOS), Maguindanao; and the Illana Bay on the West.
The city is situated in the lowest portion of Maguindanao province. The City of Cotabato with its 37 barangays spans an area with marked landscapes of flat, level to nearly level, very gently sloping to gently undulations to moderately sloping or rolling. It is basically a delta formed by two big rivers, the Tamontaka River and the Rio Grande de Mindanao. Basically 70% of its total land area is below sea level. There are only 2 existing elevated areas in the city, the PC Hill and the Timako Hill with an altitude of 90 and 150 feet, respectively.
Concentration of settlements and other urban uses are in the central portion while the southwestern and southeastern portion have mixed uses of agricultural land settlements. The city is criss-crossed by mendering and braided creeks and rivers like the Matampay, Parang, Timako, Esteros and Miwaruy.
These water bodies serve as sources of both agricultural, industrial and domestic water requirements of some rural barangays. These rivers also serve as the natural drainage flow of the city’s wastes.
The city’s climate belongs to the fourth type characterized by more or less even distribution of rainfall throughout the year. Dry season stretches from November to May with February as the driest month and June to October as its wettest months. Average temperature is placed at 25ºC and rainfall ranges from as low as 2.71 inches in February and as high as 10.88 inches in July, except from the variation caused by degrees of elevation, the temperatures throughout the area is not significantly different. Average annual rainfall in the city registers at 7.07 inches. No typhoon or other climatic disturbances of considerable impact was experienced as Cotabato City is located outside the typhoon belt and protected by hills and small mountains surrounding it. Occasional flooding however, do occur during the onset of heavy rains. The prevailing wind in the area comes from southeast and the relatively weak wind that sweeps the region makes the condition possible for the formation of thunderstorms which usually occur any time during the year, even during the dry season. The prevailing type of climate in the city favors the cultivation of rice, vegetables, root crops and legume.